Different types of waste require different methods of waste disposal. For instance, while organic wastes from the kitchen can easily be decomposed in a composting pit, a sanitary napkin may take 500 to 800 years to degrade. Thus, while the former can be easily converted to nutrient rich compost, the latter cannot and requires a different method of waste disposal.

Sanitary Landfill

A large portion of municipal solid waste and industrial waste end up in landfills. Landfills are usually located away from the city so that any toxic gases released by decomposing materials do not affect inhabitants. Moreover, modern landfills are specially designed to mitigate pollution.

For instance, a sanitary landfill usually has a protective lining to ensure that waste materials do not seep into the groundwater. Alongside regular maintenance checks, layers of soil are poured over the refuse to prevent odors and noxious chemicals from leaking.


Some types of waste are not suitable for landfills. Such waste can instead be incinerated at extremely high temperatures, converting it to ash and gas. In some cases, incineration is often preferred as it can reduce the volume of waste by as much as 90 percent. However, burning industrial waste can also result in air pollution, so the facility must comply with the necessary government standards and guidelines.


Unlike plastic, organic wastes are relatively easy to dispose of. With the help of microorganisms and fungi, they degrade easily in the soil and can be converted to nutrient-rich manure. In some cases, composting is done with the help of earthworms and is called vermicomposting. The manure can later be added to agricultural fields, and thus greatly benefits the farming industry.

Waste-To-Energy Plants

Since burning waste materials releases energy, a number of waste-to-energy plants have been constructed. Waste from biodegradable matter can be used to generate biogas which is used as a fuel. In certain cases, the energy from burning industrial waste can be used to produce electricity and heat, which can power communities. However, companies must still comply with government regulations to minimize air pollution.


Recycling and repurposing waste materials is one of the best ways of conserving the environment. Instead of trying to completely dispose off the waste matter, parts of it can be reused or recycled. This not only reduces waste generation but also decreases the need to get new raw materials. For instance, aluminum, glass, steel, copper and even paper can all be recycled.